Published 1972 .
Written in EnglishRead online
|Statement||by Robert Charles Doster.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||, 90 leaves, bound :|
|Number of Pages||90|
Download Acute toxicity and carcinogenic activity of ochratoxin in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)
Acute toxicity and carcinogenic activity of ochratoxin in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) Public Deposited. Analytics × Add Cited by: 1. ACUTE TOXIC IT Y AND CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY OF OCHRATOXIN IN RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) INTRODUCTION Interest in the mycotoxins has been stimulated by numerous reports on the toxic and carcinogenic effects of the most thoroughly investigated mycotoxins, the aflatoxins, and by suggestions that these.
Carcinogenic/toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) in various internal organs of Plymouth Rock chicks were determined. The number of OTA-induced neoplasms was similar in chicks given 25 ppm L-β-phenylalanine (PHE) in addition to 5 ppm OTA compared to chicks given only 5 ppm OTA, which showed that PHE cannot be used as a real protector against the carcinogenic or toxic effects of OTA in by: Ochratoxin A: An overview on toxicity and carcinogenicity in animals and humans has classified OTA as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B).
Currently, the mode of carcinogenic action by OTA is unknown. OTA is genotoxic following oxidative metabolism. This activity is thought to play a central role in OTA‐mediated carcinogenesis and may Cited by: Stoycho D Stoev, Long term preliminary studies on toxic and carcinogenic effect of individual or simultaneous exposure to ochratoxin A and penicillic acid in mice, Toxicon, /n,(), ().Cited by: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering ochratoxin A (98% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of F/N rats of each sex for 16 days, 13 weeks, 9 months, 15 months, or 2 years.
Only rats were studied because ochratoxin A has been shown to be carcinogenic in mice. The acute intraperitoneal toxicities of two metabolites of Aspergillus ochraceus, ochratoxins A and B, and their dihydroisocoumarin derivatives, ochratoxins a and b, were studied in 6-month-old Mt.
Shasta strain rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).Ochratoxin A was the only compound found to be lethal to trout at the levels administered, its acute intraperitoneal LD 50 being 467 mg/kg.
Fd Cosmet. To,',icol. Pergamon Press Printed m Great Brttain ACUTE INTRAPERITONEAL TOXICITY OF OCHRATOXIN AND B DERIVATIVES IN RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) R.
DOSTER, R. SINNHUBER and N. PAWLOWSKI Department of Food Science and Technology, Ore qon State University, C'ort:allis. Ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure via ingestion and inhalation has been described in the literature to cause kidney disease in both animals and humans. This paper reviews Ochratoxin A and its relationship to human health and kidney disease with a focus on a possible association with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in humans.
Prevention and treatment strategies for OTA-induced illness. Procedures for Handling Highly Toxic & Carcinogenic Chemicals.
Because chemicals with high acute toxicity and those with high chronic toxicity are hazardous at very low concentrations, the following practices must be observed: • Notify all employees of the particular hazards associated with this work.
Ochratoxin Health Effects Ochratoxin is a toxic chemical produced by several different molds, including Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium verrucosum.
It is a common contaminant of several different foods and also has been found in. Regarding the toxicity of OTA metabolites, it has been established that the toxicity of the hydrolysate OTα was very low whereas ochratoxin C was as toxic as OTA (Chu et al., ).
When [4R]-OHOTA and OTα were investigated for their immunosuppresive properties in mice, only the 4- OH-OTA was almost as effective an immunosuppressor as OTA. Ochratoxins A and B were given to 1-day-old Babcock B cockerels to evaluate acute toxic effects. Two trials with ochratoxin A gave 7-day oral median lethal dose estimates of μg ( mg/kg) and μg ( mg/kg) per chick.
Chicks given daily oral doses of μg of ochratoxin A died on the second day. Single subcutaneous doses of μg of ochratoxin A were also lethal. carcinogenic activity for female. F/N. rats as shown by increased incidences of uncommon tubular cell adenomas and of tubular cell carcinomas.
the kidney and by increased incidences and multiplicity of fibroadenomas of the mammary gland. Ochratoxin. administration also caused nonneoplastic renal changes including tubular cell hyper.
The present study was designed to evaluate the acute effects of ochratoxin A (OA) on pullet renal function, and to determine if the diuretic effects of citrinin are altered by acute ochratoxicosis. mg/Kg Ochratoxin A causes 5% mortality. rate(4) 54 mg/Kg Ochratoxin B(4) lowered growth rate.
edema of visceral organs. accumulated of uric acid in. kidneys. ureters. heart. spleen. liver. suppress as blood-forming in bone marrow. suppress as lymph formation in spleen. bursa of Fabricius. highest toxicity in broiler (4) 5 ppm Ochratoxin in. The toxicokinetics of OTA was previously studied in rainbow trout (Fuchs et al., ), carp (Hagelberg et al., ) and more recently in Atlantic salmon (Bernhoft et al., ).
The oral bioavailability of OTA appears to be low and it distributes mainly to liver and kidney. Binding to proteins in blood is low and elimination is rapid. Dietary cyclopropene fatty acids (CPFA) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) decreased cytochrome P and b5 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity percent, percent, and Not all animals respond to the carcinogenic activity of aflatoxin but for the rat and the rainbow trout aflatoxin B1 is one of the most carcinogenic compounds known.
What about humans. Is man as sensitive as the dog or as resistant as the rat to the acute toxicity and does aflatoxin cause liver cancer in. Ochratoxin B is a phenylalanine derivative resulting from the formal condensation of the amino group of L-phenylalanine with the carboxy group of (3R)hydroxymethyloxo-3,4-dihydro-1Hbenzopyrancarboxylic acid.
Ochratoxin B differs from the more naturally abundant ochratoxin A in the absence of the dihydroisocoumarin chlorine atom. It has cytotoxic effects on kidney and liver cells. Mycotoxins are extremely carcinogenic and responsible for the wide spread occurrence of hepatic carcinoma of farmed rainbow trout fed at high rate of the toxin (Carlson et al., ).
The LD h of ochratoxin for the rainbow trout by intraperitoneal injection was mg/ kg of feed (Dodter et al., and Lovell, ). Sinnhuber, R. O., D. Lee, J. Wales & J.
Ayres. Dietary factors and hepatoma in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Co-carcinogenesis by cyclopropenoid fatty acids and the effects of gossypol and altered lipids on aflatoxin-induced liver cancer. Ochratoxin C is a naturally occurring carcinogenic mycotoxin which is a toxic metabolite from Aspergillus ochraceus, A.
sulphureus, A. melleus, and Penicillium viridicatum. If released to air, an estimated vapor pressure of X mm Hg at 25 °C indicates ochratoxin C will exist solely in the particulate phase in the atmosphere. 1. Ochratoxin A—An Important Mycotoxin.
Ochratoxin A was first described in a paper published in Nature by van der Merwe and co-workers () after they isolated a new toxic metabolite from Aspergillus ochraceus .Ochratoxins are produced by certain Aspergillus species such as A. ochraceus or A. niger and some Penicillium species, especially P.
verrucosum. Aflatoxin: Scientific Background, Control, and Implications discusses general problems posed by mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds. This book is divided into 15 chapters that summarize the discovery, elaboration, chemistry and assay, effects and metabolic fate, processing to ensure their removal or inactivation, and regulatory aspects of aflatoxins.5/5(1).
Ochratoxin A (OA) is the most abundant of this group of mycotoxins and is more toxic than other ochratoxins. It contaminates corn, cereal grains and oilseeds that have been infected with certain species of molds of the two previously indicated genera.
Ochratoxin A can adversely affect animal performance. Rainbow trout is reported to be one of the most sensitive animals to aflatoxin poisoning; the LD50 (dose causing death in 50% of the subjects) for AFB1 in a 50g trout being – ppb (– mg/kg)4. The carcinogenic or toxic effects of aflatoxins in fish seem to be species specific.
Bayer Australia Ltd Agricultural Division, 60 Dichlorvos TGAC Submission to the Technical Committee on Agricultural Chemicals.
Book X, Part 7: Environmental toxicology, pp Unpublished Report. Lewallen, L.L. and Wilder, W.H. () Toxicity of certain organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides to rainbow trout. Mosquito News The acute and chronic ecotoxicity of PFOS, PFOA, and FTOH to aquatic organisms is moderate to low.
Acute toxicity to rodents is also low. PFOS concentrations in effluents have been reported that approach indicative target values derived from available aquatic toxicity data.
PFOA has been found to be weakly carcinogenic. Martínez-Tabche et al. evaluated the toxicity of different concentrations of the herbicides 2,4-D and paraquat (0, 5, 75 and mg/L), using several assays (acute lethality test, lipid peroxidation assay by quantification of MDA – Malondialdehyde – and comet assay) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
For the acute lethality tests, it. The system categorizes avian acute and chronic toxicity, acute toxicity for wild mammals, and toxicity for insect pollinators (see Table ).
Overall, the frameworks provide relative ranks with an underlying assumption that execution of the framework will allow the user to select the safer chemical through a one-to-one comparison. The carcinogenic or toxic effects of aflatoxin in fish seem to be species specific, greater aflatoxin sensitivity in rainbow trout than in coho salmon.
Ground nut, cotton seed and copra are more prone to attack by The toxic effects of fumonisin,ochratoxin A,DON and T2 toxin are not mitigated by most sequestering agents. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin which is produced mainly by the mould fungi Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillum verrucosum during the storage of cereals, cereal products and other plant‐derived products such as herbs, spices, grapes, etc.
By carry over from mouldy fodder, ochratoxin A is also found in pork meat, offal and sausages containing pork blood. When ingested as.
between toxicity (as quantified by the MTD) and carcinogenicity (as quantified by the TD 50) is consistent with cell toxicity and the resulting cell proliferation's mediating of the carcinogenicity observed in some animal r, the committee recognizes that other reasons for the observed relationship are possible.
First reports about aflatoxin toxicity are made by H a l v e r (, ) and B a u e r et al. They have noted that aflatoxins are powerful carci-nogens in rainbow trout. The hepatocarcinomata usually reach a clinical level after 4—6 month of feeding of the contaminated meal.
The amount of conta. Huff ). Since ochratoxin A was listed in the Sixth Annual Report on Carcinogens, an additional study in male rats has been identified, which also found an increased incidence of kidney tumors following dietary exposure to ochratoxin A (Mantle et al. Cancer Studies in Humans The data available from epidemiological studies are.
Eighty‐six percent of the LC 50 acute toxicity data were less than two orders of magnitude different from the chronic toxicity no‐effect concentration for the same chemicals and species. Among the industrial organic chemicals (i.e., excluding pesticides and metals).
Predicting chronic lethality of chemicals to fishes from acute toxicity test data: Theory of accelerated life testing.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem. Kazlauskiene, N., G. Svecevicius and M.Z. Vosyliene. The use of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss) as a test-object for evaluation of the water quality polluted with heavy metals. () did not find ochratoxin-A residues in toxicated Nile tilapia and cat fish.
Also, very little toxin reached muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Fuchs et al. Lovell () reported that the oral LD 50 for ochratoxin-A in six-month-old rainbow trout is mg/Kg. Pathological signs are severe necrosis of liver and kidney tissues, pale.
Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes. macroinvertebrates and amphibians. Annual Book () of Astm Standards (Designation E).
Google Scholar. The effect of piperonyl butoxide on hepatic cytochrome Pdependent monooxygenase activities in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring chlorophenolic mycotoxin produced in contaminated food and feed by fungi of genera Penicillium and Aspergillus.
OTA is a common contaminant of various foodstuffs of both plant and animal origin. OTA represents significant risk to human and animal health. Ryu, J. C., Shirakei, N. and Ueno, Y. (): Effects of drugs and metabolic inhibitors on the acute toxicity of T-2 toxin in mice. Toxi – Ueno Y., ' Effects of drugs and metabolic inhibitors on the acute toxicity of T-2 toxin in mice ' () 25 Toxicon: fluorinated compounds while having lower toxicity and greater human safety (Mulkiewicz et al.
). A previously per-formed subchronic toxicity study of PFHxA (0, 10, 50, and mg/kg/day) in male and female rats showed a decrease in body weight gain, mild elevation in liver enzymes in the mid- and high-dose males rats.